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The Fragmentation of Aid
Author: Timo Casjen Mahn, Mario Negre
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 113755357X
Pages: 359
Year: 2016-08-31
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This edited volume provides an assessment of an increasingly fragmented aid system. Development cooperation is fundamentally changing its character in the wake of global economic and political transformations and an ongoing debate about what constitutes, and how best to achieve, global development. This also has important implications for the setup of the aid architecture. The increasing number of donors and other actors as well as goals and instruments has created an environment that is increasingly difficult to manoeuvre. Critics describe today's aid architecture as 'fragmented': inefficient, overly complex and rigid in adapting to the dynamic landscape of international cooperation. By analysing the actions of donors and new development actors, this book gives important insights into how and why the aid architecture has moved in this direction. The contributors also discuss the associated costs, but also potential benefits of a diverse aid system, and provide some concrete options for the way forward.
The Fragmentation of Aid
Author: Timo Mahn, Mario Negre
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 1137553561
Pages: 359
Year: 2016-09-09
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This edited volume provides an assessment of an increasingly fragmented aid system. Development cooperation is fundamentally changing its character in the wake of global economic and political transformations and an ongoing debate about what constitutes, and how best to achieve, global development. This also has important implications for the setup of the aid architecture. The increasing number of donors and other actors as well as goals and instruments has created an environment that is increasingly difficult to manoeuvre. Critics describe today's aid architecture as 'fragmented': inefficient, overly complex and rigid in adapting to the dynamic landscape of international cooperation. By analysing the actions of donors and new development actors, this book gives important insights into how and why the aid architecture has moved in this direction. The contributors also discuss the associated costs, but also potential benefits of a diverse aid system, and provide some concrete options for the way forward.
The Fragmentation of Aid
Author: Stephan Klingebiel, Timo Mahn, Mario Negre
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 134971643X
Pages: 392
Year: 2016-03-27
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This edited volume provides an assessment of an increasingly fragmented aid system. Development cooperation is fundamentally changing its character in the wake of global economic and political transformations and an ongoing debate about what constitutes, and how best to achieve, global development. This also has important implications for the setup of the aid architecture. The increasing number of donors and other actors as well as goals and instruments has created an environment that is increasingly difficult to manoeuvre. Critics describe today's aid architecture as 'fragmented': inefficient, overly complex and rigid in adapting to the dynamic landscape of international cooperation. By analysing the actions of donors and new development actors, this book gives important insights into how and why the aid architecture has moved in this direction. The contributors also discuss the associated costs, but also potential benefits of a diverse aid system, and provide some concrete options for the way forward.
Delivering Aid Differently
Author: Wolfgang Fengler, Homi Kharas
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 081570481X
Pages: 286
Year: 2010-11-01
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We live in a new reality of aid. Gone is the traditional bilateral relationship, the old-fashioned mode of delivering aid, and the perception of the third world as a homogenous block of poor countries in the south. Delivering Aid Differently describes the new realities of a $200 billion aid industry that has overtaken this traditional model of development assistance. As the title suggests, aid must now be delivered differently. Here, case study authors consider the results of aid in their own countries, highlighting field-based lessons on how aid works on the ground, while focusing on problems in current aid delivery and on promising approaches to resolving these problems. Contributors include Cut Dian Agustina (World Bank), Getnet Alemu (College of Development Studies, Addis Ababa University), Rustam Aminjanov (NAMO Consulting), Ek Chanboreth and Sok Hach (Economic Institute of Cambodia), Firuz Kataev and Matin Kholmatov (NAMO Consulting), Johannes F. Linn (Wolfensohn Center for Development at Brookings), Abdul Malik (World Bank, South Asia), Harry Masyrafah and Jock M. J. A. McKeon (World Bank, Aceh), Francis M. Mwega (Department of Economics, University of Nairobi), Rebecca Winthrop (Center for Universal Education at Brookings), Ahmad Zaki Fahmi (World Bank)
Bureaucracy at the Border
Author: Shannon Patricia Carcelli
Publisher:
ISBN:
Pages: 187
Year: 2018
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Scholars and policymakers have long agreed that the fragmentation of foreign aid impedes its effectiveness as a tool for foreign policy and international development. Nevertheless, many countries continue to obstruct their own foreign policy goals by spreading aid across multiple independent agencies with overlapping and sometimes conflicting agendas. Given how much the literature has said about the drawbacks of foreign aid fragmentation, why do many countries break up their aid rather than centralizing it through one large agency? In this dissertation, I argue that foreign aid fragmentation is not a conscious policy choice; rather, it is a byproduct of bargaining and vote-buying within legislatures. Precisely because foreign aid is not politically popular or salient, lawmakers promoting aid legislation often face a struggle to attract votes. One solution is to channel foreign aid funding through specialized agencies that appeal to specific legislators who may not otherwise favor a bill, resulting in bureaucratic overlap and inefficiency. I develop a spatial model of vote-buying and test its derived hypotheses on foreign aid fragmentation through several angles in four empirical chapters. First, using the US case, I find that foreign aid is more fragmented when the preferences of parties are far apart and the majority party is heterogeneous. In these cases, the particularistic interests of moderate majority party members result in specialized provisions that create fragmentation. I introduce a novel measure of foreign aid fragmentation and use it to test these hypotheses. Second, I trace the mechanisms of the theory in the creation of the 1992 FREEDOM support act. I find that moderate legislators were able to withhold their support for the bill in exchange for funding of their pet projects. This led to a more fragmented aid environment. Finally, I extend the model in two separate chapters. First, I show that divided party government plays a role in fragmentation by limiting substitute bargaining tools. Second, using a cross-national sample, I show that countries with plurality electors systems, which tend to create incentives for legislative vote-buying, also have more fragmented foreign aid budgets. This provides further evidence that aid fragmentation comes from legislative bargains.
The Good Project
Author: Monika Krause
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022613153X
Pages: 240
Year: 2014-06-19
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NGOs set out to save lives, relieve suffering, and service basic human needs. They are committed to serving people across national borders and without regard to race, ethnicity, gender, or religion, and they offer crucial help during earthquakes, tsunamis, wars, and pandemics. But with so many ailing areas in need of assistance, how do these organizations decide where to go—and who gets the aid? In The Good Project, Monika Krause dives into the intricacies of the decision-making process at NGOs and uncovers a basic truth: It may be the case that relief agencies try to help people but, in practical terms, the main focus of their work is to produce projects. Agencies sell projects to key institutional donors, and in the process the project and its beneficiaries become commodities. In an effort to guarantee a successful project, organizations are incentivized to help those who are easy to help, while those who are hardest to help often receive no assistance at all. The poorest of the world are made to compete against each other to become projects—and in exchange they offer legitimacy to aid agencies and donor governments. Sure to be controversial, The Good Project offers a provocative new perspective on how NGOs succeed and fail on a local and global level.
Brothers in Arms
Author: Andrew Mertha
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801470730
Pages: 204
Year: 2014-02-25
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When the Khmer Rouge came to power in Cambodia in 1975, they inherited a war-ravaged and internationally isolated country. Pol Pot’s government espoused the rhetoric of self-reliance, but Democratic Kampuchea was utterly dependent on Chinese foreign aid and technical assistance to survive. Yet in a markedly asymmetrical relationship between a modernizing, nuclear power and a virtually premodern state, China was largely unable to use its power to influence Cambodian politics or policy. In Brothers in Arms, Andrew Mertha traces this surprising lack of influence to variations between the Chinese and Cambodian institutions that administered military aid, technology transfer, and international trade. Today, China’s extensive engagement with the developing world suggests an inexorably rising China in the process of securing a degree of economic and political dominance that was unthinkable even a decade ago. Yet, China’s experience with its first-ever client state suggests that the effectiveness of Chinese foreign aid, and influence that comes with it, is only as good as the institutions that manage the relationship. By focusing on the links between China and Democratic Kampuchea, Mertha peers into the “black box” of Chinese foreign aid to illustrate how domestic institutional fragmentation limits Beijing’s ability to influence the countries that accept its assistance.
The South Korean Development Experience
Author: E. Kim
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 113727817X
Pages: 186
Year: 2014-06-25
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This volume explores South Korea's successful transition from an underdeveloped, authoritarian country to a modern industrialized democracy. South Korea's experience of foreign aid gives a unique perspective on how to use foreign aid for economic development as well as how to build a strong partnership between developed and developing countries.
Donor Competition for Aid Impact, and Aid Fragmentation
Author: Mr. Kurt Annen, Mr. Luc Moers
Publisher: Andrews McMeel Publishing
ISBN: 147553924X
Pages: 37
Year: 2012-08-01
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This paper shows that donors that maximize relative aid impact spread their budgets across many recipient countries in a unique Nash equilibrium, explaining aid fragmentation. This equilibrium may be inefficient even without fixed costs, and the inefficiency increases in the equality of donors' budgets. The paper presents empirical evidence consistent with theoretical results. These imply that, short of ending donors' maximization of relative aid impact, agreements to better coordinate aid allocations are not implementable. Moreover, since policies to increase donor competition in terms of aid effectiveness risk reinforcing relativeness, they may well backfire, as any such reinforcement increases aid fragmentation.
The Fragmentation of Afghanistan
Author: Barnett R. Rubin
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300095198
Pages: 378
Year: 2002-01
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This monumental book examines Afghan society in conflict, from the 1978 communist coup to the fall of Najibullah, the last Soviet-installed president, in 1992. This edition, newly revised by the author, reflects developments since then and includes material on the Taliban and Osama bin Laden. It is a book that now seems remarkably prescient. Drawing on two decades of research, Barnett R. Rubin, a leading expert on Afghanistan, provides a fascinating account of the nature of the old regime, the rise and fall of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, and the troubled Mujahidin resistance. He relates all these phenomena to international actors, showing how the interaction of U.S. policy and Pakistani and Saudi Arabian interests has helped to create the challenges of today. Rubin puts into context the continuing turmoil in Afghanistan and offers readers a coherent historical explanation for the country's social and political fragmentation.
Aid Paradoxes in Afghanistan
Author: Nematullah Bizhan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351692658
Pages: 214
Year: 2017-08-14
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The relationship between aid and state building is highly complex and the effects of aid on weak states depend on donors’ interests, aid modalities and the recipient’s pre-existing institutional and socio-political conditions. This book argues that, in the case of Afghanistan, the country inherited conditions that were not favourable for effective state building. Although some of the problems that emerged in the post-2001 state building process were predictable, the types of interventions that occurred—including an aid architecture which largely bypassed the state, the subordination of state building to the war on terror, and the short horizon policy choices of donors and the Afghan government—reduced the effectiveness of the aid and undermined effective state building. By examining how foreign aid affected state building in Afghanistan since the US militarily intervened in Afghanistan in late 2001 until the end of President Hamid Karzai’s first term in 2009, this book reveals the dynamic and complex relations between the Afghan government and foreign donors in their efforts to rebuild state institutions. The work explores three key areas: how donors supported government reforms to improve the taxation system, how government reorganized the state’s fiscal management system, and how aid dependency and aid distribution outside the government budget affected interactions between state and society. Given that external revenue in the form of tribute, subsidies and aid has shaped the characteristics of the state in Afghanistan since the mid-eighteenth century, this book situates state building in a historical context. This book will be invaluable for practitioners and anyone studying political economy, state building, international development and the politics of foreign aid.
Killing with Kindness
Author: Mark Schuller
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 0813553644
Pages: 256
Year: 2012-09-24
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After Haiti’s 2010 earthquake, over half of U.S. households donated to thousands of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in that country. Yet we continue to hear stories of misery from Haiti. Why have NGOs failed at their mission? Set in Haiti during the 2004 coup and aftermath and enhanced by research conducted after the 2010 earthquake, Killing with Kindness analyzes the impact of official development aid on recipient NGOs and their relationships with local communities. Written like a detective story, the book offers rich enthnographic comparisons of two Haitian women’s NGOs working in HIV/AIDS prevention, one with public funding (including USAID), the other with private European NGO partners. Mark Schuller looks at participation and autonomy, analyzing donor policies that inhibit these goals. He focuses on NGOs’ roles as intermediaries in “gluing” the contemporary world system together and shows how power works within the aid system as these intermediaries impose interpretations of unclear mandates down the chain—a process Schuller calls “trickle-down imperialism.”
Donor Fragmentation and Bureaucratic Quality in Aid Recipients
Author: Stephen F. Knack, Aminur Rahman
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN:
Pages: 30
Year: 2003
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Multilateral Aid 2015 Better Partnerships for a Post-2015 World
Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9264235213
Pages: 248
Year: 2015-07-14
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Multilateral Aid 2015 identifies policy areas where action is most needed to enable well-functioning multilaterals in the post-2015 era.
Research Handbook on State Aid in the Banking Sector
Author: François-Charles Laprévote, Joanna Gray, Francesco de Cecco
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 178347808X
Pages: 624
Year: 2017-11-24
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The Research Handbook on State Aid in the Banking Sector brings together experts in state aid and in financial regulation, drawn from legal academia, legal practice, economics, and from the EU and EEA institutions to shed light on this relationship. The editors and expert contributors do this by elucidating key concepts that underpin the application of state aid law to banks, and by considering specific aspects of the interface between state aid and financial regulation. The Handbook's analysis is complemented by a number of key country-based case studies, and by a concluding section which takes stock of the Banking Union’s package of legislative/regulatory reforms and reflects on the possible future role of state aid in this sector.

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