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Software Estimation
Author: Steve McConnell
Publisher: Microsoft Press
ISBN: 0735637032
Pages: 352
Year: 2006-02-22
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Often referred to as the “black art” because of its complexity and uncertainty, software estimation is not as difficult or puzzling as people think. In fact, generating accurate estimates is straightforward—once you understand the art of creating them. In his highly anticipated book, acclaimed author Steve McConnell unravels the mystery to successful software estimation—distilling academic information and real-world experience into a practical guide for working software professionals. Instead of arcane treatises and rigid modeling techniques, this guide highlights a proven set of procedures, understandable formulas, and heuristics that individuals and development teams can apply to their projects to help achieve estimation proficiency. Discover how to: Estimate schedule and cost—or estimate the functionality that can be delivered within a given time frame Avoid common software estimation mistakes Learn estimation techniques for you, your team, and your organization * Estimate specific project activities—including development, management, and defect correction Apply estimation approaches to any type of project—small or large, agile or traditional Navigate the shark-infested political waters that surround project estimates When many corporate software projects are failing, McConnell shows you what works for successful software estimation.
Software Estimation Best Practices, Tools & Techniques
Author: Murali Chemuturi
Publisher: J. Ross Publishing
ISBN: 1604270241
Pages: 320
Year: 2009-07-15
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Almost every software project begins with the utterances, “What will this cost?” and “When will this project be done?” Once those words are spoken, project stakeholders begin to wrestle with how to produce an estimate. Accurately estimating the cost or time to complete a software project is a serious problem for many software engineers, developers and project managers who struggle with costs running double original estimates, putting their careers at risk. It is reported that nearly 50% of all software projects are shelved and that one of the major causes is poor estimation practices. If developing software for internal use, poor estimates can represent a significant drain on corporate profits. Worldwide growth in the number of companies specializing in the development of software for use by other companies is staggering. India alone has nearly 20,000 such companies. Intense competition has led to an increased demand for fixed-bid pricing in client/vendor relationships, and has made effective cost estimation even more important and, in many cases, critical to a firm's survival. There are many methods of estimation. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses, proponents and opponents. Knowing how and which one to use on a given project is key to developing acceptable estimates for either internal or external projects.Software Estimation Best Practices, Tools, & Techniques covers all facets of software estimation. It provides a detailed explanation of the various methods for estimating software size, development effort, cost, and schedule, including a comprehensive explanation of Test Effort Estimation. Emphasizing that software estimation should be based on a well-defined process, it presents software estimation best practices and shows how to avoid common pitfalls. This guide offers direction on which methods are most appropriate for each of the different project types commonly executed in the software development space and criteria for selecting software estimation tools. This comprehensive desk reference explains software estimation from scratch to help the beginner and features advanced techniques for more experienced estimators. It details project scheduling, including resource leveling and the concept of productivity, as applicable to software estimators, demonstrating the many benefits of moving from the current macro-productivity approach to a micro-productivity approach in software estimation. Software Estimation Best Practices, Tools, & Techniques: A Complete Guide for Software Project Estimators caters to the needs of all software project stakeholders, from novice to expert. It provides the valuable guidance needed to estimate the cost and time required to complete software projects within a reasonable margin of error for effective software development.
Practical Software Estimation
Author: M. A. Parthasarathy
Publisher: Pearson Education
ISBN: 0132702444
Pages: 304
Year: 2003-02-25
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"A clearly written book that is a useful primer for a very complicated set of topics." --Capers Jones, Chief Scientist Emeritus, Software Productivity Research LLC Practical Software Estimation brings together today's most valuable tips, techniques, and best practices for accurately estimating software project efforts, costs, and schedules. Written by a leading expert in the field, it addresses the full spectrum of real-world challenges faced by those who must develop reliable estimates. M. A. Parthasarathy draws on the immense experience of Infosys, one of the world's largest and most respected providers of IT-enabled business solutions, to bring you the only book with detailed guidance on estimating insourced and outsourced software projects, as well as projects that blend both approaches. He demonstrates how to successfully utilize Function Point (FP) methods, the industry's leading estimation model. Then, using real case studies, he systematically identifies pitfalls that can lead to inaccurate estimates--and offers proven solutions. Coverage includes How to estimate all types of software projects, including "fresh" development, reengineering, and maintenance How to incorporate the impact of core project elements on estimates: scope, environment, experience, and tools FP analysis from start to finish: data and transaction functions, general system characteristics, and more FP methods for any platform or business function Innovative re-estimation methods to track progress How to quote RFPs and prepare contracts: fixed price, time/material, and project execution lifecycle models Alternatives to FP: Delphi, COCOMO II, and COSMIC-FFP How to choose the right estimation tools Practical Software Estimation is the definitive reference for anyone who must estimate software projects accurately: project and IT managers, individual developers, system designers, architects, executives, consultants, and outsourcers alike. List of Figures List of Tables Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Role of Estimation in Software Projects Chapter 3: A Study of Function Point Analysis Chapter 4: Data Functions Chapter 5: Transactional Functions Chapter 6: General System Characteristics Chapter 7: Size, Effort, and Scheduling of Projects Chapter 8: Estimation Flavors Chapter 9: A Sense of Where You Are Chapter 10: Tips, Tricks, and Traps Chapter 11: Insourcing versus Outsourcing Chapter 12: Key Factors in Software Contracts Chapter 13: Project Estimation and Costing Chapter 14: Other Estimation Methods Chapter 15: Estimation Tools Chapter 16: Estimation Case Study Appendix A: Reference Tables: Transaction Function Counts Appendix B: Reference Tables: Data Function Points Bibliography Index
Practical Software Project Estimation: A Toolkit for Estimating Software Development Effort & Duration
Author: Peter Hill, International Software Benchmarking Standards Group
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071717927
Pages: 304
Year: 2010-08-29
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Product verifiable, defensible, and achievable software estimates Based on data collected by the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG), Practical Software Project Estimation explains how to accurately forecast the size, cost, and schedule of software projects. Get expert advice on generating accurate estimates, minimizing risks, and planning and managing projects. Valuable appendixes provide estimation equations, delivery rate tables, and the ISBSG Repository demographics. Verify project objectives and requirements Determine, validate, and refine software functional size Produce indicative estimates using regression equations Predict effect and duration through comparison and analogy Build estimation frameworks Perform benchmarks using the ISBSG Repository Compare IFPUG, COSMIC, and FiSMA sizing methods Peter Hill is the chief executive officer and a director of the ISBSG. He has been in the information services industry for more than 40 years and has compiled and edited five books for the ISBSG.
Software Project Effort Estimation
Author: Adam Trendowicz, Ross Jeffery
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319036297
Pages: 469
Year: 2014-05-07
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Software effort estimation is one of the oldest and most important problems in software project management, and thus today there are a large number of models, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses in general, and even more importantly, in relation to the environment and context in which it is to be applied. Trendowicz and Jeffery present a comprehensive look at the principles of software effort estimation and support software practitioners in systematically selecting and applying the most suitable effort estimation approach. Their book not only presents what approach to take and how to apply and improve it, but also explains why certain approaches should be used in specific project situations. Moreover, it explains popular estimation methods, summarizes estimation best-practices, and provides guidelines for continuously improving estimation capability. Additionally, the book offers invaluable insights into project management in general, discussing issues including project trade-offs, risk assessment, and organizational learning. Overall, the authors deliver an essential reference work for software practitioners responsible for software effort estimation and planning in their daily work and who want to improve their estimation skills. At the same time, for lecturers and students the book can serve as the basis of a course in software processes, software estimation, or project management.
Software Sizing, Estimation, and Risk Management
Author: Daniel D. Galorath, Michael W. Evans
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420013122
Pages: 576
Year: 2006-03-15
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To achieve consistent software project success under the pressures of today's software development environment, software organizations require achievable plans including viable estimates of schedule, resources, and risks. To estimate realistically, you must understand how to apply sound estimation processes, tools, and data. Software Sizing, Estimation, and Risk Management: When Performance is Measured Performance Improves is a practical, hands-on discussion of the software estimation, planning, and control process. This includes critical factors that impact estimates, methods for selecting and applying appropriate measures to projects, proper software sizing, and processes to identify and manage risk. The authors use their expertise in sizing, estimation, process engineering, and risk management to clearly demonstrate problems that make many estimates crumble and solutions that provide successful project plans. The book offers insight not available anywhere else, enabling you to recognize and avoid downstream impacts resulting from poor estimates.
Software Project Estimation
Author: Alain Abran
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118954084
Pages: 288
Year: 2015-04-06
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This book teaches how to collect and analyze data about past software projects and how to build credible estimation models using simple statistical techniques. End-of-chapter exercises Over 100 figures illustrating the concepts presented throughout the book Examples incorporated with industry data
Software Cost Estimation and Sizing Methods
Author: Shari Lawrence Pfleeger, Felicia Wu, Rosalind Lewis
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833037137
Pages: 97
Year: 2005
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Recommends an approach to improving the utility and accuracy of software cost estimates by exposing uncertianlty and reducing the risks associated with developing the estimates.
Estimating Software Costs : Bringing Realism to Estimating
Author: Capers Jones
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071483004
Pages: 644
Year: 2007-04-19
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Deliver bug-free software projects on schedule and within budget Get a clear, complete understanding of how to estimate software costs, schedules, and quality using the real-world information contained in this comprehensive volume. Find out how to choose the correct hardware and software tools, develop an appraisal strategy, deploy tests and prototypes, and produce accurate software cost estimates. Plus, you'll get full coverage of cutting-edge estimating approaches using Java, object-oriented methods, and reusable components. Plan for and execute project-, phase-, and activity-level cost estimations Estimate regression, component, integration, and stress tests Compensate for inaccuracies in data collection, calculation, and analysis Assess software deliverables and data complexity Test design principles and operational characteristics using software prototyping Handle configuration change, research, quality control, and documentation costs "Capers Jones' work offers a unique contribution to the understanding of the economics of software production. It provides deep insights into why our advances in computing are not matched with corresponding improvements in the software that drives it. This book is absolutely required reading for an understanding of the limitations of our technological advances." --Paul A. Strassmann, former CIO of Xerox, the Department of Defense, and NASA
Software Requirements And Estimation
Author: Kishore & Naik, Swapna Kishore, Kishore & Naik
Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN: 0070403120
Pages: 392
Year: 2001-01-01
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The book contains:The context of requirements engineering and software estimation; activities of requirements engineering, including elicitation, analysis, documentation, change management and traceability; description of various methodologies that can be used for requirements elicitation and analysis; contents of the software requirements specification document; functional and technical size estimation methods, estimation by analogy and expert estimation; detailed estimation based on work breakdown structure; do s and don s related to requirements and estimation; tools and resources that can be used for requirements and estimation; scenarios, examples, case studies and exercises.
Agile Estimating and Planning
Author: Mike Cohn
Publisher: Pearson Education
ISBN: 0132703106
Pages: 368
Year: 2005-11-01
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Agile Estimating and Planning is the definitive, practical guide to estimating and planning agile projects. In this book, Agile Alliance cofounder Mike Cohn discusses the philosophy of agile estimating and planning and shows you exactly how to get the job done, with real-world examples and case studies. Concepts are clearly illustrated and readers are guided, step by step, toward how to answer the following questions: What will we build? How big will it be? When must it be done? How much can I really complete by then? You will first learn what makes a good plan-and then what makes it agile. Using the techniques in Agile Estimating and Planning , you can stay agile from start to finish, saving time, conserving resources, and accomplishing more. Highlights include: Why conventional prescriptive planning fails and why agile planning works How to estimate feature size using story points and ideal days–and when to use each How and when to re-estimate How to prioritize features using both financial and nonfinancial approaches How to split large features into smaller, more manageable ones How to plan iterations and predict your team's initial rate of progress How to schedule projects that have unusually high uncertainty or schedule-related risk How to estimate projects that will be worked on by multiple teams Agile Estimating and Planning supports any agile, semiagile, or iterative process, including Scrum, XP, Feature-Driven Development, Crystal, Adaptive Software Development, DSDM, Unified Process, and many more. It will be an indispensable resource for every development manager, team leader, and team member.
Software Cost Estimation, Benchmarking, and Risk Assessment
Author: Adam Trendowicz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642307647
Pages: 322
Year: 2013-01-10
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Software effort estimation is a key element of software project planning and management. Yet, in industrial practice, the important role of effort estimation is often underestimated and/or misunderstood. In this book, Adam Trendowicz presents the CoBRA method (an abbreviation for Cost Estimation, Benchmarking, and Risk Assessment) for estimating the effort required to successfully complete a software development project, which uniquely combines human judgment and measurement data in order to systematically create a custom-specific effort estimation model. CoBRA goes far beyond simply predicting the development effort; it supports project decision-makers in negotiating the project scope, managing project risks, benchmarking productivity, and directing improvement activities. To illustrate the method’s practical use, the book reports several real-world cases where CoBRA was applied in various industrial contexts. These cases represent different estimation contexts in terms of software project environment, estimation objectives, and estimation constraints. This book is the result of a successful collaboration between the process management division of Fraunhofer IESE and many software companies in the field of software engineering technology transfer. It mainly addresses software practitioners who deal with planning and managing software development projects as part of their daily work, and is also of interest for students or courses specializing in software engineering or software project management.
Software Measurement and Estimation
Author: Linda M. Laird, M. Carol Brennan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471792527
Pages: 379
Year: 2006-06-05
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An effective, quantitative approach for estimating and managing software projects How many people do I need? When will the quality be good enough for commercial sale? Can this really be done in two weeks? Rather than relying on instinct, the authors of Software Measurement and Estimation offer a new, tested approach that includes the quantitative tools, data, and knowledge needed to make sound estimations. The text begins with the foundations of measurement, identifies the appropriate metrics, and then focuses on techniques and tools for estimating the effort needed to reach a given level of quality and performance for a software project. All the factors that impact estimations are thoroughly examined, giving you the tools needed to regularly adjust and improve your estimations to complete a project on time, within budget, and at an expected level of quality. This text includes several features that have proven to be successful in making the material accessible and easy to master: * Simple, straightforward style and logical presentation and organization enables you to build a solid foundation of theory and techniques to tackle complex estimations * Examples, provided throughout the text, illustrate how to use theory to solve real-world problems * Projects, included in each chapter, enable you to apply your newfound knowledge and skills * Techniques for effective communication of quantitative data help you convey your findings and recommendations to peers and management Software Measurement and Estimation: A Practical Approach allows practicing software engineers and managers to better estimate, manage, and effectively communicate the plans and progress of their software projects. With its classroom-tested features, this is an excellent textbook for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate students in computer science and software engineering. An Instructor Support FTP site is available from the Wiley editorial department.
Software Measurement and Estimation
Author: Linda M. Laird, M. Carol Brennan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471792527
Pages: 379
Year: 2006-06-05
View: 239
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An effective, quantitative approach for estimating and managing software projects How many people do I need? When will the quality be good enough for commercial sale? Can this really be done in two weeks? Rather than relying on instinct, the authors of Software Measurement and Estimation offer a new, tested approach that includes the quantitative tools, data, and knowledge needed to make sound estimations. The text begins with the foundations of measurement, identifies the appropriate metrics, and then focuses on techniques and tools for estimating the effort needed to reach a given level of quality and performance for a software project. All the factors that impact estimations are thoroughly examined, giving you the tools needed to regularly adjust and improve your estimations to complete a project on time, within budget, and at an expected level of quality. This text includes several features that have proven to be successful in making the material accessible and easy to master: * Simple, straightforward style and logical presentation and organization enables you to build a solid foundation of theory and techniques to tackle complex estimations * Examples, provided throughout the text, illustrate how to use theory to solve real-world problems * Projects, included in each chapter, enable you to apply your newfound knowledge and skills * Techniques for effective communication of quantitative data help you convey your findings and recommendations to peers and management Software Measurement and Estimation: A Practical Approach allows practicing software engineers and managers to better estimate, manage, and effectively communicate the plans and progress of their software projects. With its classroom-tested features, this is an excellent textbook for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate students in computer science and software engineering. An Instructor Support FTP site is available from the Wiley editorial department.
Estimating Software-Intensive Systems
Author: Richard D. Stutzke
Publisher: Pearson Education
ISBN: 0768684897
Pages: 944
Year: 2005-04-26
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Many software projects fail because their leaders don't know how to estimate, schedule, or measure them accurately. Fortunately, proven tools and techniques exist for every facet of software estimation. Estimating Software-Intensive Systems brings them together in a real-world guidebook that will help software managers, engineers, and customers immediately improve their estimates–and drive continuing improvements over time. Dick Stutzke presents here a disciplined and repeatable process that can produce accurate and complete estimates for any project, product, or process, no matter how new or unusual. Stutzke doesn't just describe formal techniques: He offers simple, easy-to-use templates, spreadsheets, and tools you can start using today to identify and estimate product size, performance, and quality–as well as project cost, schedule, and risk reserves. Stutzke shows how to quickly "get your arms around" users' problems and requirements, the structure of a solution, and the process needed to deliver it. You'll learn how to choose the most appropriate estimating techniques and tools; collect accurate data, track progress, and update estimates; and recalibrate estimating models to improve estimation accuracy. Stutzke's techniques apply whether you're creating custom in-house business software, purchasing or customizing "off-the-shelf" technology, or constructing complex, one-of-a-kind military, industrial, or commercial systems. These techniques apply to small and large projects, and to all project life cycles–from agile to plan-driven. This book will help you plan, estimate, budget, schedule, purchase, design, build, test, deploy, operate, and maintain software-intensive systems. It explains how to size software, identify all cost components, calculate the associated costs, and set a competitive price. A separate section covers topics of interest for large projects: designing an appropriate work breakdown structure, collecting data from cost accounting systems, and using earned value measurement. You'll find updates and even more information on this book's companion web site, http://www.sw-estimation.com.