Prematuridade O Enigma Da Evolucao Humana Book PDF, EPUB Download & Read Online Free

Prematuridade
Author: Euripedes de Aguiar
Publisher:
ISBN: 1980783586
Pages: 284
Year: 2018-04-08
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PREMATURIDADE, em 2018, COM NOVA CAPA, NOVA ILUSTRAÇÕES E VERSÃO EM INGLÊS.Estudos científicos apontam que, em algum período entre 500 e 40 mil anos atrás, um animal muito parecido com os seres humanos desenvolveu uma inteligência diferente de tudo que tinha existido até então. Mas, quando, porque, e como isso aconteceu é um dos maiores mistérios do universo. Se existe vida na terra há cerca de 3,6 bilhões de anos, porque somente após 40 mil anos atrás apareceram provas inequívocas do surgimento dessa cognição diferenciada? O que provocou isso? Como ocorreu essa transformação? Este livro apresenta uma teoria lógica, dentro dos princípios de Charles Darwin e Alfred Wallace, para esclarecer esse grande mistério: a origem da humanidade.Há 75 mil anos, explodiu o mega vulcão Toba na Indonésia, abrindo uma cratera de 30 x 100 Km, expelindo fogo, gases, cinzas e fumaça a 30 mil metros de altura, quatro vezes a altura que viajam os jatos comerciais, provocando um inverno vulcânico em todo o planeta por 1.800 anos, baixando a temperatura global em 15 graus, nos primeiros 6 anos, e em 12 a 5 graus, nos anos posteriores, e extinguindo várias espécies, sobretudo na Ásia, na Oceania e na África. Se o leitor fizer uma busca na Internet, "a catástrofe de Toba", terá acesso a vários sites e muitas informações sobre o fenômeno. O autor propõe que, no extremo Sul africano, um punhado de hominídeos com uma inteligência semelhante a chimpanzés, em 15 mil anos, adquiriu uma inteligência semelhante à dos humanos de hoje. A extinção de várias espécies provocou uma desestabilização na cadeia alimentar, obrigando a esses hominídeos correr longas distâncias para caçar os poucos animais que escaparam da catástrofe, e nadar com grande eficiência, para alimentar-se de peixes, sobretudo do mar, ambiente menos afetado pelas consequências de Toba. Cambotas que eram como ainda são os chimpanzés de hoje, sofreram uma pressão evolutiva extraordinária no sentido do estreitamento da pélvis para facilitar a corrida e o nado de caça. Só que tinham um cérebro muito volumoso, e o estreitamento da pélvis começou a impedir o nascimento dos bebês, ora matando a mãe, ora o bebê, ou os dois. Nesse ponto, o autor apresenta uma solução para resolver o grande mistério: sugere que os hominídeos que nasciam um pouco prematuros tinham maior vantagem no nascimento, pois, com os cérebros ainda um pouco menores, podiam passar mais facilmente pela nova pélvis que se estreitava.E aí, aconteceu o inesperado, o efeito colateral que proporcionou o surgimento dos humanos que somos: aqueles que nasciam um pouco antes do tempo, prematuros, não tinham todos os instintos gravados, isto é, nasciam com memórias livres. Muitas memórias livres! Quanto mais a pélvis estreitava, mais ficavam prematuros e nasciam com mais memórias livres. Pela primeira vez, isso acontecia no planeta: um ser vivo tinha um mecanismo que aumentava seu espaço para dados continuamente, dando uma grande chance ao aparecimento de algoritmos como os da linguagem, da comparação, da imitação, da contagem, do reconhecimento de membros de grupo, do reconhecimento de outros animais, da multiplicação, da divisão, da soma, da proporcionalidade, e muitos outros que compõem o sistema cognitivo dos humanos que somos hoje.Este livro é a história de como o autor chegou a essa teoria e às conclusões sobre diversos assuntos controversos sobre os humanos, como o sentido da imortalidade, a ideia de Deus, o orgasmo feminino, a menopausa, a monogamia, o adultério, o sexo privado, a homossexualidade, a diversidade genética africana, dentre outros.No final, sugere uma experiência científica para transformar uma espécie de macacos em animais capazes de produzir um desenho representativo, o que os colocaria a um passo da inteligência dos humanos.
Prematurity
Author: Euripedes de Aguiar
Publisher:
ISBN: 1980734925
Pages: 273
Year: 2018-04-03
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Scientific studies show that some time between 500 and 40 thousand years ago, an animal very similar to humans developed a different intelligence from anything that had hereto existed. However, when, why, and how this happened is one of the greatest mysteries of the universe. If life has existed on earth for 3.6 billion years, why does unequivocal proof of the emergence of this differentiated cognition date to only 40,000 years ago? What caused this? How did this transformation take place? The present book presents a logical theory, within the principles of Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace, to clarify this great mystery: the origin of humanity.The Toba Volcano erupted 75,000 years ago in Indonesia, opening up a 30 × 100 km crater, expelling fire, gases, ash, and smoke up to a height of 30,000 meters--four times the height at which commercial jets fly--and triggering a 1,800 year-long volcanic winter throughout the planet. This catastrophic event lowered the global temperature by 15 degrees in the first 6 years, by 5-12 degrees in subsequent years, and caused the extinction of many species, especially in Asia, Oceania, and Africa. An Internet search for "the Toba catastrophe" returns a wealth of various websites and information about the phenomenon. The author proposes that in the extreme south of Africa, over the course of 15,000 years, a handful of hominids with chimpanzee-like intelligence acquired an intelligence similar to that of present-day humans.The extinction of several species destabilized the food chain, forcing these hominids to run long distances to hunt the few animals that had escaped the catastrophe. They also had to efficiently swim hunt fish, especially those from the sea--the environment least affected by the consequences of Toba. A species similar to present-day chimpanzees underwent extraordinary evolutionary pressure that resulted in the narrowing of the pelvis to facilitate racing and swimming. However, they had a bulky brain, and the narrowing of the pelvis began to prevent the birth of the babies, sometimes killing the mother, the baby, or both. At this point, the author arrives at an inferenceto solve the great mystery: he suggests that hominids born slightly prematurely had a greater advantage at birth. With their brains a little smaller, they could pass more easily through the new, narrow pelvis.Then, the unexpected happened: the side effect that gave rise to the humans that we are. Those who were born prematurely did not develop all their previously encoded instincts, that is, they were born with free memories--lots of free memories! The more the pelvis narrowed, the more babies were born prematurely and had more free memories. For the first time on the planet, a living being had developed a mechanism that continually increased its space for data, enhancing the likelihood for the appearance of algorithms such as language, comparison, imitation, counting, recognition of group members, recognition of other animals, multiplication, division, summation, proportionality, and many others that make up the cognitive system of the humans we are today.This book is the story of how the author came to this theory and these conclusions regarding various controversial subjects, such as the sense of immortality, the idea of God, female orgasm, menopause, monogamy, adultery, private sex, homosexuality, and African genetic diversity.Finally, he suggests a scientific experiment to transform a species of monkeys into animals capable of producing representative design, which in turn would place them a step away from human intelligence.
Rebellion in the Backlands
Author: Euclides da Cunha
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226124452
Pages: 562
Year: 2010-01-15
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Euclides da Cunha's classic account of the brutal campaigns against religious mystic Antonio Conselheiro has been called the Bible of Brazilian nationality. "Euclides da Cunha went on the campaigns [against Conselheiro] as a journalist and what he returned with and published in 1902 is still unsurpassed in Latin American literature. Cunha is a talent as grand, spacious, entangled with knowledge, curiosity, and bafflement as the country itself. . . . On every page there is a heart of idea, speculation, dramatic observation that tells of a creative mission undertaken, the identity of the nation, and also the creation of a pure and eloquent prose style."—Elizabeth Hardwick, Bartleby in Manhattan
Libraries in the Ancient World
Author: Lionel Casson
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300097212
Pages: 177
Year: 2002
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Telling the story of ancient libraries from their very beginnings, when "books" were clay tablets, a renowned classicist takes readers on a lively tour from the royal libraries of the ancient Near East to the private and public libraries of Greece and Rome, down to the first Christian monastic libraries, explaining what books were acquired and how. Illustrations.
Anatomy & Physiology: A Complete Introduction: Teach Yourself
Author: David Le Vay
Publisher: Teach Yourself
ISBN: 1473608678
Pages: 288
Year: 2015-10-08
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Anatomy & Phsiology: A Complete Introduction is designed to give you everything you need to succeed, all in one place. It covers the key areas that students are expected to be confident in, outlining the basics in clear, jargon-free English and providing added-value features like summaries of key books and even lists of questions you might be asked in your seminar or exam. The book uses a structure that mirrors the way anatomy & physiology is taught on many university courses, providing a comprehensive introduction to the structure and function of the human body. Extensively illustrated, the book also covers modern methods of investigation, relevant aspects of modern genetics, sports injuries, environmental and evolutionary considerations, and the physiological aspects of AIDS. Topics covered include: cells and tissues; the skeleton; muscle; body coverings and body systems; the upper limb; the lower limb; the abdomen; tThe thorax; the head and neck; basic biophysics and chemistry; foodstuffs and vitamins; digestion; absorption, utilization and storage of digested food; blood, lymph and reticuloendothelial (immune) system; the heart and circulation; respiration; excretion; nervous system and sense organs; the endocrine system; reproduction and development; environmental considerations; evolution . Anatomy & Physiology employs the 'Breakthrough Method' to help you advance quickly at any subject, whether you're studing for an exam or just for your own interst. The Breakthrough Method is designed to overcome typical problems you'll face as learn new concepts and skills. - Problem: "I find it difficult to remember what I've read."; Solution: this book includes end-of-chapter summaries and questions to test your understanding. - Problem: "Lots of introductory books turn out to cover totally different topics than my course."; Solution: this book is written by a university lecturer who understands what students are expected to know.
The Upright Thinkers
Author: Leonard Mlodinow
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0345804430
Pages: 352
Year: 2016-04
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Presents a history of science, focusing on its influence in the transition from humanity's primitive beginnings up to the modern day, with profiles of famous scientists responsible for some of the world's greatest scientific discoveries. --Publisher's description.
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS IN ENGINEERING, 4TH ED
Author: William W. Hines, Douglas C. Montgomery, David M. Goldman. Connie M. Borror
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 8126516461
Pages: 672
Year: 2008-05-01
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Market_Desc: · Advanced Undergraduate Students in Engineering or Management About The Book: This book retains the pedagogical strengths that made the previous editions so popular, including the use of real data in the examples. Topics included in this book are nonparametric statistics, p-values in hypothetical testing, residual analysis, quality control and experiment design.
Metamorphoses of the Body
Author: José Gil
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 0816626839
Pages: 333
Year: 1998
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Explores the relationship between power and the body. This investigation of power and the body is a brilliantly original account of the nature of force as it functions in religious rituals, sorcery, political relations, and other social domains. Laying the foundation for an "anthropology of forces", it is crucial reading for anyone interested in how bodies and power circulate in a range of human contexts and cultures. For Jose Gil the body, with its capacity to translate forces into signs, is the source of power. Analyzing the language of mime and gestures, comparing magical cures to psychiatric ones, contrasting the flayed body of Kafka's "In the Penal Colony" with the anatomical body in Vesalius's De Humani Corporis Fabrica, he develops a typology of metamorphoses of the body as they correspond to systems of signs. A major intervention that marks the first appearance of Gil's work in English, Metamorphoses of the Body gives us an entirely new way of looking at relationships between bodies, forces, politics, and people.
Humans Before Humanity
Author: Robert Andrew Foley
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 0631205284
Pages: 260
Year: 1997-03-06
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This book recreates the lost world of the hominid species that lived and flourished for around one million years before, and in some cases after, the evolution of modern humans some 200,000 years ago.
The Panda's Thumb: More Reflections in Natural History
Author: Stephen Jay Gould
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 039334083X
Pages: 352
Year: 2010-11-29
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"Gould is a natural writer; he has something to say and the inclination and skill with which to say it." —P. B. Medawar, New York Review of Books With sales of well over one million copies in North America alone, the commercial success of Gould's books now matches their critical acclaim. The Panda's Thumb will introduce a new generation of readers to this unique writer, who has taken the art of the scientific essay to new heights. Were dinosaurs really dumber than lizards? Why, after all, are roughly the same number of men and women born into the world? What led the famous Dr. Down to his theory of mongolism, and its racist residue? What do the panda's magical "thumb" and the sea turtle's perilous migration tell us about imperfections that prove the evolutionary rule? The wonders and mysteries of evolutionary biology are elegantly explored in these and other essays by the celebrated natural history writer Stephen Jay Gould.
The Hidden Connections
Author: Fritjof Capra
Publisher: Anchor
ISBN: 0385494726
Pages: 300
Year: 2004-01-01
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The author of The Tao of Physics applies the principles of complexity theory to an analysis of the vast expanse of all human relationships to examine the social impact of emerging scientific principles, discussing such important matters as the management of human organizations, the challenges and dangers of economic globalization, and the nature and problems of biotechnology. Reprint. 25,000 first printing.
Imaginary futures
Author: Richard Barbrook
Publisher: Pluto Press
ISBN: 0745326609
Pages: 334
Year: 2007-04
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This book is a history of the future. It shows how our contemporary understanding of the Net is shaped by visions of the future that were put together in the 1950s and 1960s. Richard Barbrook argues that at the height of the Cold War the Americans invented the only working model of communism in human history, the Internet. Yet, for all of its libertarian potential, the goal of this high-tech project was geopolitical dominance. The ownership of time was control over the destiny of humanity. The potentially subversive theory of cybernetics was transformed into the military-friendly project of "artificial intelligence." Capitalist growth became the fastest route to the "information society." The rest of the world was expected to follow America's path into the networked future. Today, we're still being told that the Net is creating the information society---and that America today is everywhere else tomorrow. Barbrook shows how this idea serves a specific geopolitical purpose. Thankfully, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the DIY ethic of the Net shows that people can resist these authoritarian prophecies by shaping information technologies in their own interest. Ultimately, if we don't want the future to be what it used to be, we must invent our own improved and truly revolutionary future.
The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious
Author: Carl Gustav Jung
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691018332
Pages: 451
Year: 1981-08-01
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Essays which state the fundamentals of Jung's psychological system: "On the Psychology of the Unconscious" and "The Relations Between the Ego and the Unconscious," with their original versions in an appendix.
MANUAL COMPLETO DE CONTABILIDADE PUBLICA
Author: DEUSVALDO CARVALHO, MARCIO CECCATO DALCOMUNE
Publisher:
ISBN: 8576268566
Pages: 958
Year:
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Esta obra contempla todo o conteúdo programático de Contabilidade Pública, é um livro que aborda conceitos indispensáveis à contabilidade pública não apenas necessária, mas esperada com a veemência daqueles que carecem de mentoreamento. Um livro direto com linguagem de fácil entendimento, mesmo para os estudantes que não são da área jurídica, o que o faz uma ferramenta indispensável para concurseiros e universitários e interessados pela área.
The Psychology Of Women
Author: Helene Deutsch
Publisher: Read Books Ltd
ISBN: 1473382785
Pages: 412
Year: 2013-04-16
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Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing many of these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.